[162] In 2020, the INDF ETF was launched to mark the start of Diwali. [168], Diwali was first celebrated in the White House by George W. Bush in 2003 and was given official status by the United States Congress in 2007. [29][30] Newar Buddhists in Nepalese valleys also celebrate the Diwali festival over five days, in much the same way, and on the same days, as the Nepalese Hindu Diwali-Tihar festival. Confectioners and shops create Diwali-themed decorative displays, selling these in large quantities, which are stocked for home celebrations to welcome guests and as gifts. [75], Diwali is celebrated by Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, and Newar Buddhists,[29] although for each faith it marks different historical events and stories, but nonetheless the festival represents the same symbolic victory of light over darkness, knowledge over ignorance, and good over evil. The Lacshmipuja dipanwita, remarked Jones, was a "great festival at night, in honor of Lakshmi, with illuminations on trees and houses". [80], Many Hindus associate the festival with Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity, and wife of Vishnu. The cake can also be served with other sweets such as ice cream. [117], Naraka Chaturdashi is also a major day for purchasing festive foods, particularly sweets. A few, notably the Mughal emperor Akbar, welcomed and participated in the festivities,[60][61] whereas others banned such festivals as Diwali and Holi, as Aurangzeb did in 1665. Monier Monier Williams (2008 updated, Harvard University), Sanskrit English dictionary, दीप. The Diwali night's lights and firecrackers, in this interpretation, represent a celebratory and symbolic farewell to the departed ancestral souls. One tradition links the festival to legends in the Hindu epic Ramayana, where Diwali is the day Rama, Sita, Lakshman and Hanuman reached Ayodhya after a period of 14 years in exile after Rama's army of good defeated demon king Ravana's army of evil. [68][69][note 7] Examples include a 10th-century Rashtrakuta empire copper plate inscription of Krsna III (939–967 CE) that mentions Dipotsava,[70] and a 12th-century mixed Sanskrit-Kannada Sinda inscription discovered in the Isvara temple of Dharwad in Karnataka where the inscription refers to the festival as a "sacred occasion". A variety of entertainments are usually available for inhabitants of the local community to enjoy. The Catholic dicastery Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, founded as Secretariat for non-Christians by Pope Paul VI, began sending official greetings and Pope's message to the Hindus on Diwali in the mid-1990s. [91] Depending on the region, celebrations include prayers before one or more Hindu deities, the most common being Lakshmi. Historical records appear inconsistent about the name of the lunar month in which Diwali is observed. Part 1: How to Wish Happy Birthday in Russian + Various Greetings. One particular firework called anar (fountain) has been found to be responsible for 65% of such injuries, with adults being the typical victims. The authors concluded that the contribution of the festival fireworks could lead to a 1.3% increase in the non-carcinogenic hazard index. In your story, give details of the secret and explain why it was important to keep that secret. [89] The telling of these myths are a reminder of the Hindu belief that good ultimately triumphs over evil. [139] According to Kinsley, the ritual use of cow dung, a common fertiliser, is an agricultural motif and a celebration of its significance to annual crop cycles. [97], Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas in remembrance of the release of Guru Hargobind from the Gwalior Fort prison by the Mughal emperor, Jahangir, and the day he arrived at the Golden Temple in Amritsar. [113] Some communities, particularly those active in Ayurvedic and health-related professions, pray or perform havan rituals to Dhanvantari on Dhanteras. The Jains observe their own Diwali which marks the final liberation of Mahavira,[25][26] the Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas to mark the release of Guru Hargobind from a Mughal Empire prison,[27] while Newar Buddhists, unlike other Buddhists, celebrate Diwali by worshipping Lakshmi, while the Hindus of Eastern India and Bangladesh generally celebrate Diwali, by worshipping goddess Kali. Birthday on Russian language - hand-written text, typography, calligraphy, lettering outside!: in Slovakia, when it 's a person 's birthday, Beautiful for.. Happy, healthy, and Karnataka ice cream person is organising a party and of... 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