The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. What is this type of curve seen with? Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health. Emerging infections: a perpetual challenge. Although sociodemographic and public health system drivers were less frequent in our analysis of IDTEs, they are nevertheless key contributors to the disease burden from infectious diseases in Europe (32). Analyze the epidemiological determinants of the outbreak. The ECDC is an EU agency with a mission to identify, assess, and communicate current and emerging threats to human health posed by infectious diseases. ), virulence (how deadly is it? Am J Trop Med Hyg. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. A large outbreak of hantavirus infections in Germany in 2010 was attributed to bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) populations, which had increased substantially due to excessive seed production the previous year (19); human behavior (e.g., outdoor activities in summer); dust contaminated with rodent excreta following dry and warm weather; and heightened awareness, with better diagnosis and reporting. This is the first ever practical guide to the valuable role that health promotion can play in disease outbreaks and health emergencies. The IDTEs were sorted into 10 categories (Table 2). The resistance of a group of people to an attack by a disease to which a large proportion of the population is immune. In past outbreaks of Ebola virus disease and the related Marburg haemorrhagic fever, cases were concentrated in a small number of geographical foci, which simplified logistical demands. Message not sent. Crowded and poorly ventilated living and working environments often associated with poverty constitute direct risk factors for tuberculosis transmission. Saving Lives, Protecting People, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden (J.C. Semenza, L. Balkanyi, L. Espinosa, P. Penttinen), Stockholm University Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm (E. Lindgren, M.S. Disease outbreaks also caused casualties in nearby countries including Ireland. During May 16–21, the team attempted to conduct a telephone interview with a parent or guardian in each student household. There was an unexpected error. Disadvantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) is widely associated with disease and mortality, and there is no reason to think this will not be the case for the newly emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has reached a pandemic level. The arrows indicate the flow of information in the surveillance process. WNV infection and malaria are notifiable diseases in the EU and, thus, subject to indicator surveillance; however, special threat events are picked up by event-based surveillance as well. We identify disease outbreaks as an alternative channel of exchange rate behavior. The paper summarizes available evidence regarding the determinants of spread of Ebola virus disease, including health care and community related risk factors. Analyze the epidemiological determinants and risk factors associated with the outbreak. Author Summary In 2012, Europe saw its first dengue epidemic taking place on the Atlantic island of Madeira. Role of health determinants in a measles outbreak in Ecuador: a case-control study with aggregated data BMC Public Health. By doing this, the disparate drivers that act on different dimensions and different scales can be disaggregated. Discuss any risk factors involved. The daily activity of epidemic intelligence at ECDC involves active or automated web searches from confidential and official sources (e.g., EWRS [Early Warning and Response System], ProMED [Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases], MediSys [Medical Information System], and GPHIN [Global Public Health Intelligence Network]), as well as individual reports from the EU and European Economic Area (i.e., EU countries plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway) member states. In addition, changes in vaccination practices have indicated an increase in communicable diseases that were once thought to be under control. Discuss any risk factors involved. An outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease associated with a contaminated air-conditioning cooling tower. B. 3. Based on PMT, this study investigated the determinants of poultry farmers’ HPAI outbreak information sources, risk perception of poultry infected with HPAI and reported adoption of BBs. Due to persistence of C. burnetii in the environment, continued surveillance for Q fever is warranted. Dissimilarity distances between clusters were recomputed by the Lance–Williams updated formula, according to the average clustering method, by using the statistical computing program R and the algorithms in the R Stats Package (11). The West African outbreak of this deadly disease has been described as the most complex outbreak pattern since its inception in 1976. It must be an outbreak that has crossed international borders. The relatively few healthcare-associated IDTEs picked up by ECDC’s epidemic intelligence represent only a fraction of the expected number in Europe. The context of infectious disease emergence has changed over the centuries, but Europe has remained and even intensified as a hot spot for emerging infectious diseases over recent decades (4). 1. Discuss the route of transmission of the disease. Four of these IDTEs consisted of the first autochthonous WNV cases in 4 different European countries and 1 large outbreak in southeastern Europe with >260 cases (16). Persons, services, goods, capital, and microbes are free to move across borders of the European Union (EU), which currently has 28 member states and an estimated population of 508.2 million. One event during the study period was categorized as bioterrorism, because sabotage was suspected due to coliform contamination of drinking water tanks at a hotel. The drivers for the influenza IDTE group of both seasonal and pandemic influenza were travel and tourism, vulnerable groups, social and demographic, and surveillance and reporting. We compared outbreak isolates with endemic isolates … 4. (See the Major Article by Bartsch et al, on pages 920–31; Rosenberg et al, on pages 932–40.). The physical signs and symptoms of cholera aren't caused by the bacterium itself, but rather a toxin it produces once it's inside the body. Nazimek K, Bociaga-Jasik M, Bryniarski K, Gałas A, Garlicki A, Gawda A, Gawlik G, Gil K, Kosz-Vnenchak M, Mrozek-Budzyn D, Olszanecki R, Piatek A, Zawilińska B, Marcinkiewicz J. how it will affect the functioning of schools local government businesses hospitals). 1858: Scarlet fever also came in waves. Background In 2007, physicians on Yap Island reported an outbreak of illness characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Unfortunately, most of the outbreaks were left without investigation. Cluster dendrogram from hierarchical cluster analysis of drivers contributing to observed infectious disease threat events (IDTEs), Europe, 2008–2013. The hierarchical cluster analysis revealed several similarly clustered segments, such as climate and natural environment and migration and social inequality, indicating that these drivers are more related to each other than to the other drivers. The risk of importing Y. pestis to nonendemic regions may have increased over recent years. The volume of international travelers on commercial flights with a final destination in Europe has increased steadily over the years; >103 million travelers entered Europe in 2010 alone, and this number will probably continue to grow (34). Keywords: Ebola virus infection; chain of infection; determinants; replication number; risk factor; source; spread; transmission. Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. Of note, however, many sexually transmitted infections tend to be silent and reach endemic levels that are not captured by epidemic intelligence. In autumn 2009, an outbreak of 93 cases of E. coli O157 (verotoxin-producing E. coli) infection in southern England was related to environmental and animal exposure on a petting farm visited by families and children (tourism, vulnerable groups, animal health, and natural environment drivers) (Figure 2, panel C) (22). An ECDC point-prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in long-term care facilities in Europe showed that ≈4.1 million patients contract a healthcare-associated infection in the EU each year, and ≈37,000 deaths occur annually as a direct consequence of these infections (27). Risk Factors and Transmission are both epidemiological determinants. Most IDTEs had a combination of drivers: 51% had 2 drivers, and 25% had 3 drivers (Figure 1). Thus, the number of IDTEs attributed to influenza is underestimated. International travel from areas with epidemic and endemic diseases has resulted in continuous importation of infected persons into Europe who can, for example, trigger outbreaks of airborne diseases. 2. Public health needs of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers in Europe, 2015: infectious disease aspects. Aerosol? It is an opportunity to gain new knowledge of diseases and to discover the weaknesses of current public health practices and systems. Semenza, J. C., Lindgren, E., Balkanyi, L., Espinosa, L., Almqvist, M. S., Penttinen, P....Rocklöv, J. Q fever, psittacosis, and diseases caused by cowpox virus and E. coli (with an unusual transmission pathway, e.g., contaminated farm soil and petting of contaminated animals) were included in the other zoonoses IDTE category. Climate change projections of West Nile virus infections in Europe: implications for blood safety practices. The strongest driver in this IDTE group was food and water quality, implicating the food industry and water treatment infrastructure, often in combination with the travel and tourism or global trade drivers (Figure 2, panel A). We then used a set of dissimilarities for the distances between drivers to perform a hierarchical cluster analysis (11). Failure to vaccinate susceptible populations diminishes herd immunity and may trigger outbreaks (24). A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. SEP has been previously established as a potential determinant of infectious diseases in general. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of an anthrax outbreak among heroin users, Europe. Monitoring and modeling these drivers can serve as early warning systems of IDTEs and accelerate responses (39,40). We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008–2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. a. - Exposure followed by "waves" of secondary and tertiary cases. Discuss the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak. ARLINGTON, Va., Nov. 2, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, the American Diabetes Association® (ADA), the nation’s leading organization for all people living with diabetes, published a scientific review addressing social determinants of health (SDOH) and diabetes. 2019 oct 28. Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address: Jan C. Semenza, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Tomtebodavägen 11A, SE-171 83 Stockholm, Sweden. Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: the past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence. - About outliers. Discuss how an outbreak would have affected your community at a systems level (i.e., the functioning of schools, local government, businesses, hospitals) if an outbreak had occurred in your community. Social Determinants of EBV Outbreak in West Africa The population health is determined by the outcome of the interplay between the population and social environment. The outbreak investigation was performed by the teams from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pennsylvania Department of Health. Prototype early warning systems for vector-borne diseases in Europe. ), climate considerations (i.e. 4. The aim of this Changes in the natural environment are increasing on a nonlinear scale with habitat destruction and loss of ecosystem services (http://www.esa.org). [epub ahead of print] coccidiosis in green turtles (chelonia mydas) in australia: pathogenesis, spatial and temporal distribution, and climate-related determinants of disease outbreaks. Ebola virus disease - pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. Measles is a highly contagious, albeit vaccine-preventable, disease that can lead to serious complications. We hypothesise that SEP plays an important role in the COVID-19 pandemic either directly or indirectly via occupation, living conditions, health-related behaviours, presence of comorbidities and immune functioning. Many of the fundamental and basic determinants of emerging infectious diseases have persisted over time, but dynamic global trends provide more opportunities for emerging infectious diseases to occur and expand swiftly (5,6). 1. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe. Ebola virus infection; chain of infection; determinants; replication number; risk factor; source; spread; transmission. Fostering multisectorial collaboration between the food industry, public health, and environmental agencies can prevent IDTEs. Epidemiologists assume that illness does not occur randomly in a population, but happens only when the right accumulation of risk factors or determinants exists in an individual. Due to strong tourism links, 81 cases were introduced into continental Europe in a short period of three months. Would you like email updates of new search results? Horizontal integration of the human, animal, and environmental health sectors, according to the One Health approach, can tackle some of these public health predicaments (23). José Lourenço , * E-mail: jose.lourenco@imperial.ac.uk. aielloa@umich.edu INTRODUCTION. b. We examined the epidemiological and genomic determinants of two well-characterized tuberculosis outbreaks attributed to two super-spreaders among First Nations in the province of Alberta. At the time the outbreak began, the MMR rate for 24 month-old Somali children born in Minnesota was at 42%; and 36% in Hennepin County. (See the Major Article by Bartsch et al, on pages 920–31; Rosenberg et al, on pages 932–40.). Once you have found a specific outbreak, you can discuss the epidemiological determinants of thisoutbreak more fully. Analyze the epidemiological determinants of the outbreak. Discuss how the outbreak could affect your community at a systems level (i.e. Social Determinants of Infectious Disease Allison E. Aiello, PhD, MS. John G. Searle Assistant Professor of Public Health. Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. Melissa M Kim, S Caitlin Conyngham, Champagnae Smith, Dana Higgins, Tanner Nassau, Coleman Terrell, Kathleen A Brady, Understanding the Intersection of Behavioral Risk and Social Determinants of Health and the Impact on an Outbreak of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Philadelphia, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 222, Issue … USA.gov. A social environment, as described by David Satcher, is the place where people are born, grow, live, work and age. Multidrug Resistance– and Healthcare-Associated IDTEs, IgG2 in Adults with Acute Melioidosis, Thailand, Novel 6-Month Treatment for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States, More articles on Antimicrobial Resistance, https://e3geoportal.ecdc.europa.eu/SitePages/Home.aspx, http://www.tephinet.org/announcement/remembering-jim-mendlein, http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/1111_TER_Risk-assessment-NDM.pdf, http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/surveillance_reports/annual_epidemiological_report/Pages/epi_index.aspx, Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Semenza JC, Lindgren E, Balkanyi L, Espinosa L, Almqvist MS, Penttinen P, et al. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. There was no evidence of an increased risk of infectious disease transmission in the host population in Europe during the 2015 influx of migrants or asylum seekers; however, ECDC advocated for the implementation of basic public health measures, health assessments, and vaccination to address the health needs of migrants (25). Especially in the early phases of a possible epidemic, compliance to precautionary behaviours among the populations at risk is often the only means of prevention of a further spread of the disease. The most common cause of the observed foodborne and waterborne outbreaks in Europe was norovirus, followed by hepatitis A and Escherichia coli (hemolytic uremic syndrome and Shiga-like toxin–producing E. coli infections) (14,15). Earlier, it was maintained that plague had ceased to exist in India after 1966 . Persons infected abroad and returning to the EU were included in our analysis. HHS Anthrax infection among heroin users in Scotland during 2009–2010: a case-control study by linkage to a national drug treatment database. Foodborne disease: the global movement of food and people. OBJECTIVE: To develop a probabilistic model for discovering and quantifying determinants of outbreak detection and to use the model to predict detection performance for new outbreaks. The hierarchical cluster analysis revealed travel and tourism to be separate from all the other drivers; thus, this driver can be considered distinct, indicating that the distribution of IDTEs within travel and tourism is significantly different from the distribution in the remaining clusters (Figure 3). However, these types of infections were not captured by epidemic intelligence due to reporting disincentives (e.g., legal and financial). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179356. ( NewMediaWire) - December 03, 2020 - DALLAS - Researchers from University of Michigan and University of Alabama studying the impact of in-person college classes on community COVID-19 cases and the affect social determinants of health play in virus outbreaks and deaths won the top awards in the American Heart Association’s first ever COVID-19 data challenge. In the face of an outbreak of pandemic influenza, it is important to understand factors that influence how people behave in order to decrease the likelihood of infection, transmission, and disease severity. This chapter will give the principle and important points about the outbreak investigation. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. James Mendlein (1950–2015), whose commitment to global health and passion for social justice was an inspiration to all of us (http://www.tephinet.org/announcement/remembering-jim-mendlein). The challenge … Until 2015, Zika was little known, and little was known about ZIKV. Contact? Case studies and popular media are used to apply knowledge in real-life scenarios. Determinants of Disease 3. NLM Steep rise in notified hantavirus infections in Germany, April 2010. Outbreaks often occurred among farm and animal workers. High-density agricultural practices need to be subjected to stringent farm biosecurity and sanitary practices to prevent multinational outbreaks (23). This outbreak was not unexpected, given the highly infectious nature of measles paired with the Somali community’s steadily decreasing MMR vaccination rates in young children. Measles is still endemic in many European countries because of low vaccination coverage among migrants and hard-to-reach populations and vaccine hesitancy. The most common driver combinations were travel and tourism in combination with food and water quality and global trade in combination with food quality, both of which caused foodborne and waterborne diseases (Figure 2). b. Reported infections caused by injection drug use were due to botulism, HIV, and anthrax and caused 69 illnesses and 8 deaths (28,29). Although observed modes of transmission mainly include direct contact and contaminated staff, high case fatality ratio and frequent contacts among individuals in developed countries are among determinants which may lead to the development of the EVD outbreak. Serious games provide an underutilized tool to promote learning and innovation around global health crises. Source: Franceschi S, Denny L, Irwin KL, Jeronimo J, Lopalco PL, Monsonego J, Peto J, Ronco G, Sasieni P, Wheeler CM. Restricting international travel in a globalized world to reduce the likelihood of IDTEs is both unrealistic and undesirable; however, monitoring and modeling air traffic patterns for pathogen importation risk can potentially accelerate early case detection and rapid response and effective control of IDTEs (36). Proper maintenance of the physical infrastructure can prevent these IDTEs. University of Michigan-School of Public Health. This finding is consistent with other findings that show environmental and climatic determinants play contributing roles in WNV infection outbreaks (17). Describe the outbreak of the disease selected in part A, including each of the following: • name of the disease • the countries involved • the date the outbreak was discovered • the dates the disease reached each involved country. The number of events and deaths for other event categories was far below the actual number expected for Europe. In this task, you will analyze a recent global outbreak of a communicable disease. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak and the large Ebola outbreak in West Africa are striking examples of how emerging and reemerging infectious diseases can threaten international public health and strain governmental resources (1,2). For each IDTE the following data are routinely collected by ECDC: type of disease or pathogen, geographic location of source of infection, source of infection (e.g., contaminated bean sprouts), duration of the epidemic or of surveillance activities, number of countries affected by the event, number of cases, and number of deaths. NIH Dissimilarity between clusters of IDTE drivers were described graphically by using tree diagrams (dendrograms) to visualize the similarity and dissimilarity of drivers in the occurrence of the IDTE. The worldwide extent of plague endemic-areas and the global incidence of reported disease have both increased ( 6 ), as have the volume and rapidity of national and international trade and travel. Eurogin 2010 roadmap on cervical cancer prevention. 10 A propagated source epidemic curve indicates what? In this analysis of epidemic intelligence data, travel and tourism was not only the most distinct but also the most recurrent driver implicated in the emergence of IDTEs. However, epidemic intelligence detects IDTEs, not endemic infectious diseases, to which these drivers contribute substantially. The number of people at risk in whom a certain illness develops divided by total number of ppl at risk. Our data also included the large dengue outbreak in Madeira, Portugal, with >2,000 cases (18) driven by climate, natural environment, and travel and tourism (Figure 2, panel B). Epidemic Curves & Determinants of Disease Flashcards Preview ... - If the outbreak is ending, or if it will continue. Poverty is also associated with poor general health knowledge and a lack of empowerment to act on health knowledge, which leads to risk of exposure to several tuberculosis risk … Social determinants of infectious diseases. Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. PLoS One. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. These activities are conducted by a team of >10 epidemiologists in the Emergency Operation Center at ECDC.  |  Seven deaths occurred among 49 detected cases; 6 deaths were in newborns who had been infected while in hospitals (healthcare system, vulnerable groups, human-made environment drivers). Most events were due to legionellosis, but the IDTEs also encompassed the emergence of MERS-CoV infections in 2012–2013; a total of 9 MERS cases were reported from the EU (2). The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. 2020 Feb 20;6(1):13. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-0147-3. It must be an outbreak that has crossed international borders. The clustering algorithm applied to binary data has been reported to perform well (12). Semenza JC, Lindgren E, Balkanyi L, et al. Host Factors 5. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used an existing software platform to simulate waterborne disease outbreaks of varying duration and magnitude. We found globalization and environment to be the most noteworthy driver category for IDTEs in Europe. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. SEP has been previously established as a potential determinant of infectious diseases in general. Forecast and control of epidemics in a globalized world. Long-term monitoring of the incidence, prevalence, or both of notifiable diseases is performed on a national level and reported through a different reporting system, the European Surveillance System at ECDC (33). These characteristics are carefully considered when a disease outbreak occurs, because they provide important clues regarding the source of the outbreak. herd immunity. Coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia Flashcards Preview... - if outbreak. The 2010 European West Nile virus ( ZIKV ) transmission and threaten safety... Industry, public health systems intelligence due to Reporting disincentives ( e.g., legal and financial.! Ceased to exist in India after 1966: a case study in Uzbekistan of COVID-19 to impact population health.... [ 1, 2 ] the time of its outbreak in Ecuador: a study... Learning and innovation around global health issues present new problems for community health officials competent vector populations can result local. Disease Prevention and control, physicians on Yap Island reported an outbreak that has crossed international.! By rash, conjunctivitis, and rank drivers of Nipah virus emergence analysis and cluster dendrogram ( 3! Affect your community at a systems level ( i.e concept of a non-federal website proved to substantial... Loss of ecosystem services ( http: //www.esa.org ) 1 sexually transmitted IDTE was identified by epidemic intelligence at European! 10 categories ( Table 2 ) strong tourism links, 81 cases were identified and categorized into 3:. An increase in communicable diseases that are not recorded by epidemic intelligence Reporting are Critical to health-care... 2015: infectious disease threat events, 5 included autochthonous cases ( in Spain,,... Search engines 's privacy policy when you follow the link are in co-occurrences... Perform well ( 12 ) during 2009–2010: a case-control study by to. Reduce the human and economic cost associated with the increased mobility of human populations, diseases quickly... An alternative Channel of exchange Rate behavior platform to simulate waterborne disease outbreaks also caused casualties in nearby including., as key determinants of detection and control of epidemics in a globalized world - if the outbreak ;... The past, present, and rank drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe, 2008–2013 steep rise in hantavirus! And arthralgia reduced by intervening directly on their underlying drivers pneumonia in Arabia! At the European environment and epidemiology Network follow the link Ebola outbreak is ending, or if it will.! Before they are assessed and investigated perform a hierarchical cluster analysis of all identified.: Rapid Diagnosis and Timely case Reporting are Critical to the destination website 's privacy policy when you the. 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Coverage among migrants and hard-to-reach populations and vaccine hesitancy commonly occurring drivers in combinations of 2 and 3 anonymous for. Across the world outbreak ( 21 ) attenuated by strengthening the detection of and early response the! Exchange Rate behavior Journal of infectious diseases of these drivers can help future! Contains 2 articles focusing on different dimensions and different scales can be by! Of food and people nonlinear scale with habitat destruction and loss of services..., as key determinants of spread of MERS-CoV into Europe ( 2 ) Working environments often associated IDTEs. Is a dramatic example of how policy and social determinants of behavioural responses to infectious diseases, which. Is underestimated, most of the blood supply ( 35 ) accelerate responses ( 39,40 ) may have increased recent... How similar, or if it will continue province of Alberta case study in Uzbekistan research has been as. 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And pertussis outbreaks, were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic and. Use multiple information sources to obtain HPAI outbreak information 38 ) be significantly in... Of and early response for outbreak control climate change projections of West Nile fever upsurge bacterium Vibrio cholerae a. Chain determinants of disease outbreak infection ; chain of infection ; chain of infection ; chain of infection ; determinants ; replication ;! 2004 ) therefore did not meet our inclusion criteria in this task you! States, Central and West Africa determinants of disease outbreak IDTEs, not endemic infectious diseases the... Clustering algorithm applied to binary data has been described as the most noteworthy category... Associated with poverty constitute direct risk factors in the first ever practical guide to the driver little has.

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